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Berlin, Ira. How did American slavery begin? Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

_______. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998.

________. The Making of African America: The Four Great Migrations. New York: Viking, 2010.

Breen, T. H. and Stephen Innes. “Chapter 2: “Race Relations as Status and Process.” Myne Owne Ground: Race and Freedom on Virginia’s Eastern Shore, 1640-1676 . New York: Oxford University Press, 25th anniversary edition, 2004.

Bruce, Philip Alexander. Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. New York: Johnson Reprints. n.d. (orig. 1896).

________. Social Life of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Lynchburg, Va.: J. P. Bell, 1927.

Brown, Carolyn A. and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds. Repercussions of the African Slave Trade: The

Interior of the Bight of Biafra and the African Diaspora . Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, Inc., 2010.

Curto, José C. and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds. Enslaving Connections: Changing Cultures of Africa and Brazil During the Era of Slavery . Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2004.

Engs, Robert. Freedom’s First Generation: Black Hampton, Virginia, 1861-1890. New York, 2004.

Finkelman, Paul. An Imperfect Union: Slavery, Federalism, and Comity . Studies in legal history. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

_______. The Law of Freedom and Bondage: A Casebook. The New York University School of Law series in legal history. Ingram documents in American legal history. New York: Oceana Publications, 1986.

_______. Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson . Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Finkelman, Paul and Joseph C. Miller, general editors, Encyclopedia of Slavery. New York, Macmillan Reference, 1998.

Gomez, Michael. Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora. Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Heywood, Linda and John Thornton . Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660 . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Sparks, Randy. The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Thornton, John. The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641-1718. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.

______. Africa and Africans in the Formation of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680 (New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 1992, second expanded edition, 1998).

______. Kongolese Saint Anthony. Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684-1706. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

______. Warfare in Atlantic Africa, 1500-1800. University College of London Press/Routledge, 1999.

Vinson, Ben and Herbert S. Klein. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Vinson, Ben. Bearing Arms for His Majesty: The Free-Colored Militia in Colonial Mexico. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.



Berlin, Ira. “From Creole to African: Atlantic Creoles and the Origins of African-American Society in Mainland North America.” The William and Mary Quarterly , Third Series, 53 (April 1996): 251-288.

Bernhard, Virginia. “Men, Women and Children” at Jamestown: Population and Gender in Early Virginia, 1607-1610.” The Journal of Southern History , 58 (November 1992): 599-618.

Goldman, William S. “Spain and the Founding of Jamestown.” The William and Mary Quarterly , 68 (July 2011): 427-450.

Hantman, Jeffrey L. “Caliban’s Own Voice: American Indian Views of the Other in Colonial Virginia.” New Literary History , 23 (Winter 1992): 69-81.

Herrmann, Rachel B. “The “tragicall historie”: Cannibalism and Abundance in Colonial Jamestown.” The William and Mary Quarterly , 68 (January 2011): 47-74.

Heywood, Linda M. ” Towards an Understanding of Modern Political Ideology in Africa: The Case of the Ovimbundu of Angola.” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 36 (March 1998): 139-167.

Jarvis, Michael and Jeroen van Driel. “The Vingboons Chart of the James River, Virginia, circa 1617.” The William and Mary Quarterly , Third Series, 54 (April 1997): 377-394.

Kidwell, Clara Sue. “What Would Pocahontas Think Now?: Women and Cultural Persistence.” Callaloo, 17 (Winter 1994): 149-159.

Klein, Glen. “Slavery, Freedom, and Fort Monroe.” Colonial Williamsburg, Winter 2010: 68-74.

LaCombe, Michael A. “A continuall and dayly Table for Gentlemen of fashion”: Humanism, Food, and Authority at Jamestown, 1607–1609.” The American Historical Review 115 (June 2010): 669-687.

“Letter and Proclamation of Argall.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 4 (July 1896): 28-29.

Nash, Gary B. “The Hidden History of Mestizo America.” The Journal of American History , 82 (December 1995): 941-964.

Norton, Mary Beth. “The Evolution of White Women’s Experience in Early America.” The American Historical Review, 89 (June 1984): 593-619.

Puglisi, Michael J. “Capt. John Smith, Pocahontas and a Clash of Cultures: A Case for the Ethnohistorical Perspective.” The History Teacher 25 (November 1991): 97-103.

Rountree, Helen C. “Powhatan Indian Women: The People Captain John Smith Barely Saw.” Ethnohistory , 45 (Winter 1998): 1-29.

Quitt, Martin H. “Trade and Acculturation at Jamestown, 1607-1609: The Limits of Understanding.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 52 (April 1995): 227-258.

Sidbury,James and Jorge Cañizares-Esguerra. “Mapping Ethnogenesis in the Early Modern Atlantic.” The William and Mary Quarterly, 68 (April 2011): 181-208.

Sluiter, Engel. “New Light on the ‘20. and Odd Negroes’ Arriving in Virginia, August 1619,” William and Mary Quarterly , 3d ser., 54 (1997): 396–98.

Sweet, James H. “Spanish and Portuguese Influences on Racial Slavery in British North America, 1492-1619.” Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Gilder Lehrman Center International Conference at Yale University, Collective Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race, November 7-8, 2003.

“The Angolan Connection and Slavery in Virginia.” Published by Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation.

Thornton, John. “The African Experience of the ’20. and Odd Negroes’ Arriving in Virginia in 1619,” William and Mary Quarterly , 3d ser., 55 (July 1998): 421–34.

Vaughan, Alden T. “Expulsion of the Salvages”: English Policy and the Virginia Massacre of 1622.” The William and Mary Quarterly , Third Series, 35 (January 1978): 57-84.

______. “From White Man to Redskin: Changing Anglo-American Perceptions of the American Indian.” The American Historical Review . 87 (October 1982): 917-953.

______. “Sir Walter Raleigh’s Indian Interpreters, 1584-1618.” The William and Mary Quarterly , Third Series, 59 (April 2002): 341-376.

White, Ed. “Early American Nations as Imagined Communities.” American Quarterly , 56 (March 2004): 49-81.

Wright, Irene A. “Spanish Policy Toward Virginia, 1606-1612; Jamestown, Ecija, and John Clark of the Mayflower.” The American Historical Review, 25 (April 1920): 448-479.