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Butler, Octavia E., Kindred. New York: Doubleday, 2004

Ibrahim, Laila. Yellow Crocus. Seattle: Lake Union Publishing, 2014

Johnson, Charles. Middle Passage. New York: Plume, 1991.

Kidd, Sue Monk. The Invention of Wings. New York: Penguin Books, 2015.

Knight, K.I. Fate & Freedom: Book III – On Troubled Shores.  Clermont, FL: First Freedom Publishing, 2019.

Knight, K.I. Fate & Freedom, Book II: The Turning Tides.  Clermont, FL: First Freedom Publishing, 2017.

Knight, K.I. Fate & Freedom, Book I: The Middle Passage. Clermont, FL: First Freedom Publishing, 2015.

Knight, K.I. Unveiled: The Twenty & Odd. Clermont, FL: First Freedom Publishing, 2019.

Melville, Herman. “Benito Cereno.” The Piazza Tales. New York: Dix & Edwards, 1856.

Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Knopf, 1987.

Morrison, Toni. A Mercy. New York: Knopf, 2008. 

Perkins-Valdez, Dolen. Wench. New York: Harper Collins, 2011

Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. (1611)

Whitehead, Colson. The Underground Railroad. New York: Doubleday, 2016.



Andrews, William. To Tell A Free Story: The First Century of Afro-American Autobiography, 1760-1865. Lillinois UP, 1986.

Ayers, Ed.  In the Presence of Mine Enemies:  The Civil War in the Heart of America, 1859-1864.  New York:  W. W. Norton & Company; Reprint edition, 2004.

Ayres, Ed The Thin Light of Freedom: The Civil War and Emancipation in the Heart of America.  New York:  W.W. Norton, 2018.

Berlin, Ira. How did American slavery begin? Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, 1999.

_______. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998.

________. The Making of African America: The Four Great Migrations. New York: Viking, 2010.

Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South. Oxford UP, 1979.

Braxton, Joanne. Monuments of the Black Atlantic: Slavery and MemorySometimes I Think of Maryland.  Ann Arbor:  University of Michigan Press, 2004.

Braxton, Joanne.  Black Women Writing Autobiography: A Tradition within a Tradition.  Philadelphia:  Temple University Press, 1989.

Breen, T. H. and Stephen Innes. “Chapter 2: “Race Relations as Status and Process.” Myne Owne Ground: Race and Freedom on Virginia’s Eastern Shore, 1640-1676 . New York: Oxford University Press, 25th anniversary edition, 2004.

Bruce, Dickson. The Origins of African American Literature, 1680-1865. Virginia UP, 2001.

Bruce, Philip Alexander. Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. New York: Johnson Reprints. n.d. (orig. 1896).

________. Social Life of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Lynchburg, Va.: J. P. Bell, 1927.

Brown, Carolyn A. and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds. Repercussions of the African Slave Trade: The

________. Interior of the Bight of Biafra and the African Diaspora . Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, Inc., 2010.

Curto, José C. and Paul E. Lovejoy, eds. Enslaving Connections: Changing Cultures of Africa and Brazil During the Era of Slavery . Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2004.

Dunbar, Erica Armstrong. Never Caught: The Washingtons’ Relentless Pursuit of their Runaway Slave, Ona Judge. New York: 37 Ink/Atria, 2017.

Ellis, Rex.  Beneath the Blazing Sun.  Atlanta, GA:  August House Publishing, 2006.

 Ellis, Rex.  With a Banjo on My Knee: A Musical Journey from Slavery to Freedom.  New York: Franklin Watts, 2001.

Engs, Robert. Freedom’s First Generation: Black Hampton, Virginia, 1861-1890. New York, 2004.

Finkelman, Paul. An Imperfect Union: Slavery, Federalism, and Comity . Studies in legal history. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981.

_______. The Law of Freedom and Bondage: A Casebook. The New York University School of Law series in legal history. Ingram documents in American legal history. New York: Oceana Publications, 1986.

_______. Slavery and the Founders: Race and Liberty in the Age of Jefferson . Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1995.

Finkelman, Paul and Joseph C. Miller, general editors, Encyclopedia of Slavery. New York, Macmillan Reference, 1998.

Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.

Gomez, Michael.  African Dominion:  A New History of Empire in Early and Medieval West Africa.  Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2018.

Gomez, Michael. Reversing Sail: A History of the African Diaspora. Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Green, J. Lee. Blacks in Eden: The African American Novel’s First Century. Virginia UP, 1996.

Hanks, Stephen. 1619 – Twenty Africans: Their Story, and Discovery of Their Black, Red, & White Descendants.  Portland, Oregon:  Inkwater Press, 2019

Haskell, Alexander B. For God, King and People: Forging Commonwealth Bonds in Renaissance Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2017.

Heywood, Linda and John Thornton . Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660 . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Horn, James. 1619: Jamestown and the Forging of American Democracy. New York: Basic Books, 2018.

Jones, Martha S. Birthright Citizens: A History of Race and Rights in Antebellum America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Jones-Rogers, Stephanie. They Were Her Property: White Women as Slave Owners in the American South. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Lopenzina, Drew. Through an Indian’s Looking-Glass: A Cultural Biography of William Apess, Pequot. University of Massachusetts Press, 2017.

Lopenzina, Drew. Red Ink: Native Americans Picking Up the Pen in the Colonial Period (State University of New York Press, 2012.

Love, Mia.  Mia Love: The Rise, Stumble and Resurgence of the Next GOP Star.  Salt Lake City:  The Salt Lake Tribune, 2014.

McDaniel, W. Caleb. Sweet Taste of Liberty: A True Story of Slavery and Restitution in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019.

Mancall, Peter, ed. The Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550-1624. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2018.

Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Murphy, Ric.  Freedom Road: An American Family Saga from Jamestown to World War.  Franklin Pearson Publishing, 2019.

Musselwhite, Paul, Peter C. Mancall and James Horn, eds. Virginia 1619: Slavery and Freedom in the Making of English America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2019.

Newby-Alexander, Cassandra Virginia Waterways and the Underground Railroad. Charleston, SC:  The History Press, 2017.

O’Malley, Gregory E. Final Passages: The intercolonial slave trade of British America, 1619-1807. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014

Proenza-Coles, Christina. American Founders: How People of African Descent Established Freedom in the New World.  Montgomery, AL:  New South Books, 2019.

Rediker, Marcus, Outlaws of the Atlantic: Sailors, Pirates, and Motley Crews in the Age of Sail.  Boston, MA:  Beacon Press, 2014.

 Rediker, Marcus.  The Amistad Rebellion: An Atlantic Odyssey of Slavery and Freedom.  New York:  Penguin Books, 2012, 2013.

Roundtree, Helen. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006.

Sparks, Randy. The Two Princes of Calabar: An Eighteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Thornton, John. The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641-1718. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.

______. Africa and Africans in the Formation of the Atlantic World, 1400-1680 (New York and London: Cambridge University Press, 1992, second expanded edition, 1998).

______. Kongolese Saint Anthony. Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684-1706. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

______. Warfare in Atlantic Africa, 1500-1800. University College of London Press/Routledge, 1999.

Vinson, Ben and Herbert S. Klein. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Vinson, Ben. Bearing Arms for His Majesty: The Free-Colored Militia in Colonial Mexico. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.

White, Deborah Gray. Ar’n’t I a Woman?: Female Slaves in the Plantation South. Norton, 1985

Williams, Juan.  Eyes on the Prize.  New York:  Viking, 1987.

Woodson, Robert.  The Triumphs of Joseph: How Todays Community Healers Are Reviving Our Streets and Neighborhoods. New York:  Free Press, 2007.

Wright, Michelle. Becoming Black: Creating Identity in the African Diaspora. Duke UP, 2004.

Young Readers


Adler, David. Frederick Douglass : A Noble Life. New York: Holiday House, 2010  (MS/HS)

Cline-Ransome,Lesa. Before She Was Harriet, Ill. James E. Ransome. New York: Holiday House, 2017. ( ES)

Davis, Kenneth. In the Shadow of Liberty: The Hidden History of Slavery, Four Presidents, and Five Black Lives. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2016 (MS)

Davis, Ossie. Escape to Freedom: About A Play Young  Frederick Douglass. New York: The Viking Press, 1967. (MS)

Doak, Robin S. Phillis Wheatley. Minnesota: Compass Point Books, 2007. ( MS)

Douglass, Frederick of . Narrative the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave.   New York:     Dover Publication, Inc.: 1995. ( MS/ HS)

Eickhoff, Diane Faith. Early American Literature. Logan, Iowa: Perfection Learning, 2000. (HS)

Grant, Reg. Slavery: Real People and Their  Stories of  Enslavement. New York: DK Publishing, 2009. (HS)

Hamilton, Virginia. Many Thousand Gone: African Americans From Slavery to Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. (MS/HS)

McKissack, Patricia C. and Frederick L. McKissack. Christmas in the Big House, Christmas in the Quarters. Ill. John Thompson. New York: Scholastic, 1994. ( MS)

Moliken, Paul. Narrative of Sojourner Truth. Clayton, Delaware: Prestwick House, 2007. (MS/HS)

Myers, Walter Dean. Now Is Your Time: The African American Struggle for Freedom. New York: Harper, 1991. (MS/HS)

Patterson, Marie. Slavery In America:  Primary Source Reader. Huntington Beach , CA. Teacher Created Materials , 2005. ( MS)

Smith, Emily R. Life in the Colonies: Primary Source Reader. Huntington Beach, CA Teacher Created Materials, 2005. (MS)

Studelska, Jana Voelke. Women of Colonial  America. Minnesota: Compass Point Books, 2007. (ES/MS )

Ware, Melva. Frederick Douglass: Freedom’s Force. Alexandria , VA: Time Life Education, 1998. (MS/HS)

 HS= High School     MS= Middle School    ES= Elementary School



Berlin, Ira. “From Creole to African: Atlantic Creoles and the Origins of African-American Society in Mainland North America.” The William and Mary Quarterly , Third Series, 53 (April 1996): 251-288.

Bernhard, Virginia. “Men, Women and Children” at Jamestown: Population and Gender in Early Virginia, 1607-1610.” The Journal of Southern History , 58 (November 1992): 599-618.

Bryant, Rachel. “Toward the Desertion of Sycorax’s Island: Challenging the Colonial ContractEnglish Studies in Canada; Edmonton Vol. 39, Iss. 4,  (Dec 2013): 91-111.

Fawaz, Ramzi. “Settling Scores: Claiming Ground for Native and Indigenous Critique in the Americas” Anthropological Quarterly; Washington Vol. 85, Iss. 1,  (Winter 2012): 257-272.

Goldman, William S. “Spain and the Founding of Jamestown.” The William and Mary Quarterly , 68 (July 2011): 427-450.

Hantman, Jeffrey L. “Caliban’s Own Voice: American Indian Views of the Other in Colonial Virginia.” New Literary History , 23 (Winter 1992): 69-81.

Herrmann, Rachel B. “The “tragicall historie”: Cannibalism and Abundance in Colonial Jamestown.” The William and Mary Quarterly , 68 (January 2011): 47-74.

Heywood, Linda M. ” Towards an Understanding of Modern Political Ideology in Africa: The Case of the Ovimbundu of Angola.” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 36 (March 1998): 139-167.

Jarvis, Michael and Jeroen van Driel. “The Vingboons Chart of the James River, Virginia, circa 1617.” The William and Mary Quarterly , Third Series, 54 (April 1997): 377-394.

Kidwell, Clara Sue. “What Would Pocahontas Think Now?: Women and Cultural Persistence.” Callaloo, 17 (Winter 1994): 149-159.

Klein, Glen. “Slavery, Freedom, and Fort Monroe.” Colonial Williamsburg, Winter 2010: 68-74.

LaCombe, Michael A. “A continuall and dayly Table for Gentlemen of fashion”: Humanism, Food, and Authority at Jamestown, 1607–1609.” The American Historical Review 115 (June 2010): 669-687.

“Letter and Proclamation of Argall.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography , 4 (July 1896): 28-29.

Loomba, Ania. “Literature, Travel, and Colonial Writing in the English Renaissance, 1545-1625 / Colonial Writing and the New World 1583-1671: Allegories of Desire” Shakespeare Studies; Columbia Vol. 29,  (2001): 209-222.

Matibag, Eugenio D. “Self-consuming Fictions: The Dialectics of Cannibalism in Modern Caribbean Narratives” Postmodern Culture; Baltimore Vol. 1, Iss. 3,  (May 1991).

Nash, Gary B. “The Hidden History of Mestizo America.” The Journal of American History , 82 (December 1995): 941-964.

Norton, Mary Beth. “The Evolution of White Women’s Experience in Early America.” The American Historical Review, 89 (June 1984): 593-619.

Puglisi, Michael J. “Capt. John Smith, Pocahontas and a Clash of Cultures: A Case for the Ethnohistorical Perspective.” The History Teacher 25 (November 1991): 97-103.

Rountree, Helen C. “Powhatan Indian Women: The People Captain John Smith Barely Saw.” Ethnohistory , 45 (Winter 1998): 1-29.

Quitt, Martin H. “Trade and Acculturation at Jamestown, 1607-1609: The Limits of Understanding.” The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 52 (April 1995): 227-258.

Rehman, Sabina. “Language as an Instrument of Power in Colonial and Postcolonial Literature”

Journal of Research in Social Sciences; Islamabad Vol. 1, Iss. 2,  (Jun 2013): 129-147.

Sidbury, James and Jorge Cañizares-Esguerra. “Mapping Ethnogenesis in the Early Modern Atlantic.” The William and Mary Quarterly, 68 (April 2011): 181-208.

Slauter, Eric. “History, Literature, and the Atlantic World” Early American Literature; Chapel Hill Vol. 43, Iss. 1,  (2008): 153-186, 242.

Sluiter, Engel. “New Light on the ‘20. and Odd Negroes’ Arriving in Virginia, August 1619,” William and Mary Quarterly , 3d ser., 54 (1997): 396–98.

Sweet, James H. “Spanish and Portuguese Influences on Racial Slavery in British North America, 1492-1619.” Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Gilder Lehrman Center International Conference at Yale University, Collective Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race, November 7-8, 2003.

“The Angolan Connection and Slavery in Virginia.” Published by Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation.

Thornton, John. “The African Experience of the ’20. and Odd Negroes’ Arriving in Virginia in 1619,” William and Mary Quarterly , 3d ser., 55 (July 1998): 421–34.

Vaughan, Alden T. “Expulsion of the Salvages”: English Policy and the Virginia Massacre of 1622.” The William and Mary Quarterly , Third Series, 35 (January 1978): 57-84.

______. “From White Man to Redskin: Changing Anglo-American Perceptions of the American Indian.” The American Historical Review . 87 (October 1982): 917-953.

______. “Sir Walter Raleigh’s Indian Interpreters, 1584-1618.” The William and Mary Quarterly , Third Series, 59 (April 2002): 341-376.

White, Ed. “Early American Nations as Imagined Communities.” American Quarterly , 56 (March 2004): 49-81.

Wright, Irene A. “Spanish Policy Toward Virginia, 1606-1612; Jamestown, Ecija, and John Clark of the Mayflower.” The American Historical Review, 25 (April 1920): 448-479.